Patient Education

Jeffrey E. Goldberg, MD would like to be your partner in health care. Feel free to ask your questions and share your concerns with us. We will work with you to develop a wellness program for the care and treatment you need.

We welcome you to our practice and look forward to caring for you.

Jeffrey E. Goldberg, MD provides a full range of medical services including the following:


Acute and Chronic Ear Infections

Ear infections, also known as otitis media, are extremely common, particularly in childhood. Up to 75 percent of children in the United States have had an ear infection by the time they reach the age of three. Ear infections occur in the middle ear as a result of a buildup of fluid in the Eustachian tubes, which connect the eardrum to the nose. These infections may be precipitated by bacterial or viral infections of the nose or throat or by allergy attacks. ...


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Audiologic Testing

Patients who suffer from hearing loss, or other hearing- and balance-related conditions, may benefit from audiologic testing. Comprehensive diagnostic exams can determine the causes and severity of, and best treatment for, hearing-related conditions. Audiologic tests are usually performed after other diagnostic tests have indicated the presence of a possible hearing problem or balance-related condition. ...


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Blepharoplasty

Blepharoplasty (eyelid surgery) is a plastic surgery procedure for correcting sagging or drooping eyelids. The eyelid, because its skin is much thinner than that in other parts of the face, is often one of the first areas of the face to exhibit signs of aging. Eyelids that sag or droop can affect peripheral vision, making daily activities such as driving more difficult. Blepharoplasty may become necessary when various factors, which include aging, sun damage, smoking and obesity, cause the muscles and tissue that support the eyelids to weaken. ...


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Adenoidectomy

An adenoidectomy is the surgical removal of the adenoids, glands located behind the nose above the roof of the mouth. The function of the adenoids is to help fight ear, nose and throat infections by screening bacteria as they enter the body. At times, however, the adenoids themselves may become chronically infected and require removal; this condition is known as adenoiditis. ...


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BOTOX® Cosmetic

BOTOX® Cosmetic is a prescription drug that, when injected, temporarily paralyzes muscles. It contains a purified and safe form of botulinum toxin A, which is produced by the microbe that causes botulism. Manufactured by Allergan, Inc., it is used to treat permanent furrows and deep wrinkles in the skin that are formed by the continual contraction of facial muscles. In addition to its cosmetic applications, it is used to treat a number of medical problems, including excessive sweating, overactive bladder, neck spasms, crossed eyes, chronic back and jaw pain, and migraines. ...


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Hearing Aids

Hearing aids are a common non-invasive treatment option for hearing loss. A hearing aid is a small electronic device worn in or behind the ear to amplify sounds. While hearing aids are useful in improving listening and communication, they do not cure hearing impairment or make the ear function normally. ...


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Allergy Screening

Screening for allergies is necessary in order to identify the specific allergens that trigger reactions. By identifying the specific allergens, an allergy sufferer can avoid them as much as possible to reduce the frequency of reactions.

There are several different tests available to identify allergens. Blood tests, which screen for antibodies produced in response to allergens, are commonly used. The most common blood test is the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), which measures the amount of immunoglobulin E in the blood. Although blood tests can find a wide range of allergies, including those that may not even produce symptoms, they are less sensitive than other tests. ...


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Brow Lift

Also known as a forehead lift, a brow lift is a surgical procedure performed to reduce signs of aging in the forehead area. It aims to remove or minimize deep horizontal creases across the forehead and bridge of the nose, and the frown lines between the eyebrows. It also lifts the eyebrows, making the eyes look more open. ...


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Hearing Loss

Hearing loss is the sudden or gradual decrease in hearing. Hearing loss can be mild or severe, reversible, temporary or permanent, and may affect one or both ears. The most common cause of hearing loss is age, affecting up to 25 percent of people between the ages of 65 and 75 and up to 50 percent of those over the age of 75. Age-related hearing loss, known as presbycusis, results from changes in the ear which cause gradual hearing loss. Some individuals are hearing-impaired or deaf as a result of a congenital defect or because of an illness, such as Ménière's disease. ...


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Aphasia

Aphasia is a communication disorder that leaves patients unable to effectively express or understand spoken or written language. The possibility of recovery from aphasia depends on its cause, which part of the brain is affected, and how extensive the damage is. There are many types of aphasia, and a patient may suffer from more than one type. Aphasia can result from physical or psychological trauma, or from a degenerative process. Aphasia has a variety of causes. Most commonly, the condition results from a stroke or progressive dementia. Other causes of aphasia may include: ...


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Earlobe Repair

Most of the auricle (external portion) of the ear consists of skin over contoured cartilage; muscles and ligaments hold it in place. The lobe of the ear does not contain any cartilage, however, making it susceptible to damage, particularly if it has been pierced. Wearing heavy earrings can cause the hole in the earlobe, or the earlobe itself, to stretch considerably, or the earlobe to split or tear. A forceful pull on an inserted earring can also cause the earlobe to tear. Tears are categorized as partial, complete or multiple, and are often repaired by plastic surgeons, dermatologists and otolaryngologists. ...


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Tympanometry

Tympanometry is a diagnostic procedure to examine the functionality of the eardrum, or tympanic membrane. It is designed to measure how the ear responds to varied air pressure in the middle ear.

Before the test, the patient's ear is examined to make sure the ear canal is not obstructed. During the test, the doctor places a handheld probe into the ear. This device changes the pressure in the ear and causes the eardrum to move. These movements are measured and recorded on graphs called tympanograms. Under normal circumstances, the eardrum will move easily. The movement of the eardrum may be adversely affected by a buildup of fluid, an obstruction in the Eustachian tube or a perforation of the eardrum. ...


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Balance Disorders

A balance disorder is a complex condition that causes unsteadiness and dizziness, and sensations of spinning, moving or floating. Part of the inner ear known as the labyrinth interacts with other body systems, including those of the eyes, bones and joints, to maintain balance. Normal balance requires the work of three sensory systems: the visual; the vestibular, which is located in the inner ear; and the somatosensory, which involves the muscular and skeletal systems. These systems, as well as the brain and nervous systems, can be the source of balance problems. When these systems do not function properly, vertigo, spinning, disorientation, trouble focusing the eyes, and poor balance may result. ...


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Otoplasty

Otoplasty (ear surgery) is a cosmetic procedure to improve the appearance of the ears. Otoplasty does not affect hearing, and provides significant psychological benefits to anyone who is teased about ear size and/or shape, has had a serious ear injury, or simply wants to improve his or her appearance. Otoplasty is most often performed to set unusually protruding ears closer to the head (ear pinning) or to reduce the size of abnormally large ears. Otoplasty may also be helpful in repairing the following: ...


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Balloon Sinuplasty

A balloon sinuplasty is a minimally invasive endoscopic procedure used to treat chronic sinusitis. Sinusitis is an inflammation of the lining within the paranasal sinuses. Once inflamed, the sinus cavities become a fertile ground for viruses, bacteria, and occasionally fungi to grow, resulting in infection. If it becomes chronic there may be a structural problem in the nose or sinuses. In those cases, a balloon sinuplasty may be recommended. ...


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Mohs-Surgery Reconstruction

Mohs micrographic surgery is a safe and effective treatment for skin cancer. During Mohs surgery, cancerous tissue is removed in small sections. Both the visible tumor and any "roots" extending beneath the surface of the skin are excised. Because it may be necessary to remove many layers of skin to reach these roots, large wounds or scars, often in prominent areas, can be left behind. In many cases, however, reconstructive plastic surgery can be performed to repair the wound and improve the skin's appearance. ...


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Burning Mouth Syndrome

Burning mouth syndrome is a chronic condition in which a person experiences a burning sensation in the mouth. The syndrome, which often develops suddenly and can become severe, makes the sufferer feel as if the tongue is being burned by hot coffee. Burning mouth syndrome may persist for several years, and no definitive treatment options are available. ...


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Rhinoplasty

Rhinoplasty (nose surgery) is one of the most frequently performed plastic surgery procedures. During rhinoplasty, the nose is reshaped, reduced or augmented to improve its appearance. Rhinoplasty may be performed to correct a birth defect, or repair an injury such as a broken nose. It is also often performed strictly for cosmetic reasons. ...


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Cholesteatoma

A cholesteatoma is a benign cyst in the middle ear or on the mastoid. A rare cause of hearing loss, a cholesteatoma results from a malfunction of the Eustachian tubes, usually as a result of ear infections, perhaps even a perforation of the tympanic membrane, commonly known as the eardrum. ...


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Revision Rhinoplasty

Revision rhinoplasty, also known as secondary rhinoplasty, is a complex procedure to reshape or resize the nose after the initial procedure. This surgery is performed on patients who are dissatisfied with the aesthetic or functional results of the original procedure and seek additional corrective surgery. Reasons for dissatisfaction with the original procedure may include a complicated pre-surgical condition, an inexperienced surgeon or a faulty healing process. Because of its complexity, revision rhinoplasty requires the skills of a highly trained specialist. ...


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CPAP Titration Sleep Test

Patients who have been diagnosed with sleep apnea may need to undergo a sleep study test to determine what type of treatment is best for their condition. A common method of treating sleep apnea is the use of continuous positive airway pressure, or CPAP device. A CPAP device uses a mask that fits over the mouth and nose. The machine blows air into the throat and the pressure from the air helps keep the airway open during sleep. This technique of forcing air into the nose and upper airway restores free breathing for patients who suffer from sleep apnea. ...


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Rhinoplasty FAQs

Rhinoplasty, or nose surgery, is one of the most common plastic surgery procedures performed. During a rhinoplasty, the surgeon is able to reshape, reduce or augment a patient's nose to improve appearance.

A rhinoplasty may be performed as a reconstructive procedure to correct a birth defect, a repair surgery to remedy an injury like a broken nose, or simply for cosmetic reasons. Sometimes the procedure is performed in conjunction with endoscopic sinus surgery for patients with ongoing sinusitis or with a septoplasty, a procedure to correct a deviated septum. In these cases, the operation effectively treats health and breathing problems, as well as improving the patient's appearance. ...


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Deviated Septum

A deviated septum is a common condition that involves a displacement of the septum, the wall that separates the nostrils, to one side of the nose. In adults, the septum is made of cartilage and bone, and helps to support the nose and its mucous membranes, and enables regular air flow. A deviated septum often develops as a result of an injury to the nose. This condition may cause one nasal passage to be smaller than the other, which can affect breathing if the difference is great enough. A deviated septum may also be the underlying cause of sinus problems, snoring or sleep apnea. ...


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Rhytidectomy

Over time, gravity and sun exposure take their toll on the face and neck. Deep creases that run from each side of the nose to the corners of the mouth appear; the jawline slackens; and the neck develops loose folds and fat deposits. Rhytidectomy (facelift) counteracts these signs of aging by tightening muscle, removing fat, and trimming excess skin. ...


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Dysphagia

Dysphagia, also known as a swallowing disorder, is not an uncommon condition. Because the swallowing process is vital to gastrointestinal health, and the throat functions as a pathway for respiration as well as ingestion, swallowing disorders are not only uncomfortable, but may be life-threatening. There are two types of dysphagia: esophageal and oropharyngeal. Esophageal dysphagia refers to the sensation of food getting stuck in the base of the throat or chest after swallowing. Oropharyngeal dysphagia is caused by weakened throat muscles that make it difficult to move food from the mouth into the throat and esophagus when swallowing. Older individuals are more commonly affected by oropharyngeal dysphagia because of weaker teeth and throat muscles. In addition, people with neurological problems or nervous system disorders may also experience oropharyngeal dysphagia. Individuals who suffer from acid reflux or esophageal problems are more likely to suffer from esophageal dysphagia. ...


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Ear Infections

Ear infections, also known as otitis media, are one of the most common childhood medical problems. Ear infections are the most frequent cause of doctor visits for children. In fact, three out of four children in the United States will have at least one ear infection by the time they reach the age of three. ...


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Ear, Nose and Throat Allergies

Ear, nose and throat (ENT) allergies, like other types of allergies, are extremely common. Allergic reactions of all kinds are triggered by an abnormal response of the immune system when it mistakes an innocuous substance for a serious threat. While most allergic symptoms of this type are relatively mild, untreated ear, nose and throat allergies should not be ignored because they may lead to more significant medical problems. ...


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Endoscopic Sinus Fracture Repair

A sinus fracture is a break in one of the facial bones in the area of the frontal sinuses. It frequently occurs in the lower portion of the forehead where the bone is thinner than it is around the upper forehead and therefore more susceptible to fracture. Often caused by a forceful impact to the face from a car accident, sports injury or similar type of trauma, a sinus fracture frequently requires a surgical procedure for proper repair. ...


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Esophagoscopy

An esophagoscopy is a minimally invasive procedure used to diagnose and treat conditions of the esophagus. This procedure can identify diseases of the esophagus, determine the cause of symptoms, remove growths and swallowed objects or stretch narrowed areas.

An esophagoscopy uses an esophagoscope, which is a thin tube with a light and camera on the end that is fed through the mouth to the esophagus The doctor is able to view the area in real time on a video monitor in order to identify any abnormalities in the area that may be causing difficulty breathing, swallowing or eating. ...


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Fiberoptic Nasopharyngoscopy

Fiberoptic nasopharyngoscopy is a diagnostic procedure that allows doctors to evaluate the nose and throat to help determine the cause of nose and throat related problems. The nasopharynx is the upper part of the throat, or pharynx, that is situated behind the nose. Because it is in a location that is difficult to see, a fiberoptic nasopharyngoscopy may be performed to allow the doctor an optimum view of the area. During the procedure, a thin fiberoptic tube with a camera on the end is inserted into the nose to provide real-time images of the nasopharynx. ...


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Flexible Fiberoptic Laryngoscopy

Flexible fiberoptic laryngoscopy is the most common examination used to view the throat and its surrounding structures. Performed endoscopically, it is performed to visualize abnormalities, biopsy tissue, or remove small growths, such as polyps, from the region. The flexible fiberoptic laryngoscopy enables the doctor to view the following areas: nasopharynx (back of the nose), oropharynx (back of the mouth), larynx (voice box) and hypopharynx (entrance to the swallowing passage). ...


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Goiter

A goiter is an abnormal enlargement of the thyroid gland, a small gland at the base of the neck, below the Adam's apple, which is part of the endocrine system. The thyroid gland helps the body to use energy and keep warm, and keeps the muscles, the heart and other organs working efficiently. ...


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Laryngeal Cancer

The larynx, also known as the voice box, is located in the front of the neck. It helps with breathing, swallowing and speaking by controlling the opening and closing of the windpipe. Abnormalities within the larynx can lead to the development of a cancerous tumor, which most often originates in the squamous cells that line the inner walls of the larynx. Cancer of the larynx, also known as laryngeal cancer, is the most common type of throat cancer. ...


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Laryngectomy

A laryngectomy is a surgical procedure to remove all or part of the larynx (voice box). This procedure is commonly performed to treat cancer of the larynx, or to remove tissue that has become necrotic as a result of radiation treatment. A laryngectomy may also be performed to repair traumatic injury to the larynx caused by an accident or a criminal attack. After a partial laryngectomy, most patients will still be able to speak, although the voice may be softer or more raspy after the surgery. If a full laryngectomy is performed, the patient will have to learn to speak artificially through a prosthesis. ...


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Laryngitis

Laryngitis is an inflammation of the larynx, or voice box, due to overuse, infection, or aging. Inside the larynx are two vocal cords, which normally open and close smoothly to form sounds through their movement and vibration. In laryngitis, the vocal cords become inflamed, distorting the sounds they produce. This causes the voice to sound hoarse or raspy. While laryngitis is not usually a serious condition, and typically lasts for only a week or two, it may sometimes have serious causes. If a case of laryngitis presents with a fever, or if it persists for longer than 2 weeks, medical attention should always be sought. ...


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Laryngopharyngeal Reflux

Laryngopharyngeal reflux, also known as LPR, is a condition that can occur in patients who have been diagnosed with gastroesophageal reflux disease, also known as GERD. Acid from the stomach rises upward, towards the esophagus, and enters the back of the throat. Patients with LPR report experiencing a bitter taste and the feeling that something is caught in the back of their throat. In some cases, LPR can cause breathing difficulties. ...


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Laryngoscopy

A laryngoscopy is a diagnostic and treatment procedure that examines the larynx, or voice box, which contains the vocal cords. This procedure can be performed for many reasons, including to diagnose a persistent cough, hoarseness or bad breath, to detect a mass or tumor on the vocal cords, or to treat conditions of the throat and larynx. During the procedure, the physician is able to see the voice box and vocal cords with clarity because they are magnified and illuminated. Videos are produced during the examination and can be reviewed immediately afterwards. In most cases, the laryngoscopy can be performed outpatient with very little necessary recovery time. ...


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Laser Vocal Cord Surgery

Laser vocal cord surgery is an endoscopic procedure used to remove and treat a number of conditions that affect the vocal cords, including vocal cord dysplasia, benign nodules, polyps, laryngeal papillomas and some laryngeal malignancies. Laser surgery destroys the blood supply to the lesions while leaving surrounding healthy tissue intact. This is accomplished by targeting the hemoglobin in the blood, a characteristic known as angioselectivity. ...


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Meniere's Disease

Meniere's disease is a condition that involves abnormalities in the inner ear that causes hearing and balance problems. This condition usually occurs in only one ear and is most common among adults in their 40s and 50s. Over 600,000 people in the United States suffer from Meniere's disease. Although the symptoms can be distressing, there are various treatment options available for people who suffer from Meniere's disease. ...


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Microlaryngeal Surgery

Microlaryngeal surgery is a minimally invasive procedure used to biopsy or remove abnormal growths, such as granulomas or benign cysts, in the larynx. It is usually performed to correct voice disorders or to diagnose or treat laryngeal cancer. The majority of microscopic voice surgery procedures, though performed on an outpatient basis, are performed under general anesthesia to minimize the danger of gagging or breathing problems. Patients who undergo microlaryngeal surgery typically recover more quickly than patients who undergo more traditional laryngeal surgery. They also have a superior outcome in terms of voice quality. ...


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Myringotomy

A myringotomy is a surgical procedure in which a small incision is made in the tympanic membrane (eardrum) to remove fluid such as blood, pus or water from the middle ear.

A myringotomy is performed to relieve pressure buildup in the middle ear, usually due to chronic middle ear infections which are resistant to other treatments. There may also be excessive fluid present due to severe allergies. ...


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Nasal Deformity

Deformities of the nasal cavity may occur as a result of a congenital defect, traumatic injury or medical condition and can lead to an abnormal appearance. Nasal deformities can be classified as either cosmetic or functional. Cosmetic nasal deformities affect the physical appearance of the nose. Functional nasal deformities affect the function of the nose, which may include problems with breathing, snoring, sinuses, taste and smell. ...


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Nasal Fracture

In cases of facial trauma, nasal fractures are a common type of bone injury. This is largely due to the prominence and central location of the nose on the face and the weakness of the nasal cartilage. A nasal fracture is commonly the result of an injury from a car accident, a fall, a physical altercation, or a sports related injury. Untreated nasal fractures can negatively affect both the appearance and the function of the nose. Functional problems include chronic nasal obstruction or blockage, and a predisposition for sinusitis, infection, and nose bleeds. ...


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Nasal Reconstruction

Nasal reconstruction is sometimes necessary to restore appearance and functionality to the nose. There are several reasons a nasal reconstruction procedure may be required: to restructure a congenital deformity, to repair an injury, to revise a previous rhinoplasty or to reconstruct the nose after cancer treatment. Nasal reconstruction is typically performed by an otolaryngologist, often in conjunction with a plastic surgeon. Recovery from nasal reconstruction, particularly when it involves a complex procedure or multiple surgeries, may take several months. ...


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Nasopharyngeal Tumors

A nasopharyngeal tumor is a growth that forms in the nasopharynx, or the uppermost portion of the throat that is found behind the nasal cavity. The nasopharynx serves as a passageway for air from the nose to the throat and eventually to the lungs. A tumor in the nasopharynx may be either benign or malignant. Nasopharyngeal tumors that are malignant or cancerous, may spread to surrounding tissue and other parts of the body. ...


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Neck Masses

Any lump or swelling on the neck is considered a neck mass. Neck masses are relatively common, both in childhood and adulthood, and may be the result of swollen lymph nodes or swelling of the muscles of the neck, known as torticollis, which usually appear on the front of the neck.

Some lumps on the neck may produce no symptoms and may disappear within a few days. Nonetheless, some neck masses may be serious or even life-threatening. Any swelling on the neck that remains for a week or more should be evaluated by a physician. ...


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Newborn Hearing Screening

Newborn hearing screening is a noninvasive method used to detect hearing loss in newborns. Since 3 out of every 1000 newborns are born with permanent hearing loss, many of them with no known risk factors for the condition, newborn hearing screening is essential. Once limited to infants considered to be at high risk for hearing loss, such as premature infants, newborn hearing screening is now, although not mandated in every state, nearly universally performed. ...


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Nosebleeds

Nosebleeds, medically known as epistaxis, although a common occurrence, can be alarming. The great majority of nosebleeds, however, are not cause for serious concern. Most people experience one or more nosebleeds during their lifetime, usually during cold, dry weather. While nosebleeds can occur in a person of any age, they most frequently occur in young children and older adults. If an individual has frequent nosebleeds, however, or if a nosebleed is severe, the patient should be examined by a physician to make sure the that there is not an underlying condition that requires medical attention. ...


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Otology

Otology is the study, diagnosis and treatment of ear disorders and diseases. Patients may be referred to an otologist by their primary care doctor if they are experiencing problems with the ear, hearing loss or balance related disorders. Some otologists can perform surgery on the ears. Otologists may work closely with audiologists when diagnosing and treating hearing loss disorders. ...


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Otosclerosis

Otosclerosis is the abnormal growth of bone in the middle ear. This growth prevents structures of the ear from functioning properly and can cause hearing loss. The blocked structures are unable to vibrate in response to sound waves and therefore the ear does not function properly, causing partial or complete hearing loss. Otosclerosis is the most common cause of middle ear hearing loss in young adults and may affect one or both ears. ...


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Pediatric Allergies

Children suffer with allergies in many of the same ways adults do, although since they are often less verbal, particularly when they are very young, they may not be able to describe their symptoms as accurately. Children may simply present as fussy, irritable or angry when suffering pain or discomfort they can't describe. Parents and other caregivers should be aware that children suffering from ear, nose and throat allergies are much more likely than adults to develop ear infections because of anatomical differences in the structure of their ears. ...


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Pediatric Allergy Testing

Children can develop allergies at any age, and can therefore be tested at any age as well. While determining specific allergies is not always necessary in young children, it can help diagnose recurring colds, runny noses or sinus infections.

Allergy testing can be performed through a skin allergy test to help diagnose allergic conditions, including: ...


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Pediatric Otolaryngology

Pediatric otolaryngology, or ear, nose and throat (ENT), is a subspecialty designed to deal with the particular ear, nose and throat problems of children. While children are often affected by the same ENT conditions as adults, they may require special care to treat their complex conditions. Certain medical issues of the ear, nose and throat are handled almost exclusively by otolaryngologists who specialize in pediatrics. ...


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Pharyngitis

Commonly known as a sore throat, pharyngitis is usually the result of a viral infection, such as the common cold, or a bacterial infection, most often Streptococcus. Pharyngitis is characterized by rawness, scratchiness, and often swelling in the throat, sometimes accompanied by painful swallowing. On occasion, pharyngitis may be caused by a fungal infection or be a symptom of other diseases. Although usually not serious, pharyngitis that is accompanied by a fever, swollen lymph nodes, a rash, body aches or breathing difficulties should be diagnosed by a physician. Sometimes when a patient has pharyngitis, the tonsils or adenoids are also inflamed. ...


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The Pillar® Procedure

Chronic snoring may seem harmless, but it can cause serious physical and emotional complications for both snorers and those who sleep with them. Vibrating tissue in the soft palate is believed to play a major role in most cases of chronic snoring. The Pillar® Procedure, which is manufactured by Medtronic, Inc., is a simple, minimally invasive way to effectively treat snoring, as well as mild-to-moderate obstructive sleep apnea, by stiffening the soft palate. The procedure is not recommended for patients with severe sleep apnea or for those who are overweight. ...


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Saddle Nose

Weakening or loss of cartilage within the septum of the nose may lead to a condition commonly referred to as saddle nose. The term saddle nose refers to the saddle-shaped depression produced in the midsection of the nose. In some cases, saddle nose is not especially pronounced and is only noticeable when looking at the patient's profile. However, in more extreme cases, the depression may cause the tip of the nose to turn upward, which can create a blockage of nasal passages as well as shorten the nose. ...


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Septal Perforation Repair

Septal perforation repair is a surgical procedure to mend a tear or hole in the nasal septum, the wall of cartilage and bone that separates the two nostrils. The septum helps to support the mucous membranes of the nose and to regulate nasal air flow. While in some cases the perforation may not require surgical repair but only applications of saline solution and lubricating gels, nasal septal perforations may have serious medical consequences. ...


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Septoplasty

Septoplasty is a surgical procedure to correct defects or deformities of the septum, the partition between the two nostrils. Commonly, the procedure is performed to correct a deviated septum. While a small deviation of the septum is commonplace, if the condition is severe, it may impede airflow through the nostrils. This may cause difficulty breathing and poor nasal drainage from the sinuses, both of which are problematic. ...


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Sinusitis

Sinusitis (sinus infection) is a common medical condition that occurs when the sinus cavities in the upper skull become inflamed and do not drain properly. When the sinuses accumulate fluid and mucus due to an allergy or upper respiratory illness, their passages become obstructed. Without proper drainage, the impacted material becomes a fertile area for viruses, bacteria, or occasionally fungi to grow and create infection. Sinus inflammation causes pain and thickened mucus within the nasal cavity and may be chronic or acute. ...


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Sleep Apnea

Sleep apnea is a common sleep disorder that involves repeated breathing interruptions during sleep. These interruptions may occur hundred of times each night, and may be the result of structural abnormalities or brain malfunctions. During normal breathing, air passes through the nose, past the flexible structures in the back of the throat, including the soft palate, uvula and tongue. When a person is awake, the muscles hold this airway open. When they are asleep, these muscles relax and the airway usually stays open. Sleep apnea occurs when the upper airway and airflow are blocked, causing the oxygen levels to drop in both in the brain and the blood, resulting in shallow breathing or breathing pauses during sleep. ...


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Smell Disorders

Smell disorders are common conditions of the olfactory sense. Smell disorders often exist in conjunction with taste disorders and can range from a distorted sense of smell to a complete loss of smell. This may be temporary or permanent, depending on the reason. Common causes of smell disorders may be colds, allergies, sinus infections and viral infections such as the flu. Aging is also a factor in loss of the sense of smell. Like sight and hearing, the sense of smell tends to weaken during the aging process. ...


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Snoring

Snoring is the sound created by vibrations of the soft palate when breathing is partially obstructed during sleep. Snoring is often a sign that the airway is partially blocked, usually by soft tissue in the throat. The flow of air causes the soft tissue to vibrate, which generates noise from the mouth or nose. While snoring is a common and usually harmless condition, it may sometimes indicate a serious health problem. Loud and habitual snoring can disrupt sleep and be irritating to sleep partners, resulting in relationship tensions. Snoring is more common in men than women and occurs more often in older people and those who are overweight. ...


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Sulcus Vocalis

Sulcus vocalis is a voice disorder that causes perpetual hoarseness, vocal weakness and voice fatigue. The condition results from a thinning or loss of a layer of tissue along the vocal cord (vocal fold) called the superficial lamina propria. This layer of tissue normally vibrates during the production of sound. When it diminishes or disappears, a linear indentation called a sulcus is formed along the affected vocal cord and the patient has difficulty speaking. The raspy voice quality produced may ebb and flow, but will be ongoing without treatment. ...


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Swallowing Therapy

Patients that suffer from dysphagia, or difficulty swallowing may benefit from a form of treatment called swallowing therapy. Working with a speech pathologist, the patient will learn special exercises to improve the functioning of muscles associated with swallowing. Depending on the individual patient, swallowing therapy may also include a change in diet. ...


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Taste Disorders

Taste disorders are common conditions that affect the chemosensation system. They are closely related to smell disorders and affect the olfactory and gustatory nerves that affect smell and taste. Taste disorders may affect the ability to taste certain foods or tastes, the loss of taste, or it may result in an unpleasant taste in the mouth that remains, even where there is no food in the mouth. Taste and smell disorders are common conditions that affect many people each year. ...


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Tinnitus

Tinnitus is a sensation of noise in the ears which may manifest itself as ringing, clicking, or hissing. Tinnitus is extremely common, experienced by as many as one in five individuals. Usually not a serious medical problem, tinnitus can nonetheless be extremely intrusive, affecting the patient's quality of life. It is often considered a symptom, caused by an underlying condition such as a problem with the inner or middle ear. Although it is often not a serious health problem, if tinnitus persists, it can cause fatigue, depression, anxiety, and problems with memory and concentration. ...


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Tonsillectomy

A tonsillectomy is the surgical removal of the tonsils, the two pads located at either side of the back of the throat. The tonsils serve as part of the immune system, a first line of defense for pathogens entering the mouth or nose. Because of their function, they may become infected or inflamed and, in some cases, may require surgical removal. Tonsillectomies are more commonly performed on children than adults. A tonsillectomy may be necessary when an individual has recurring episodes of tonsillitis or an ongoing infection that has not healed with other treatment. Surgery may also be required if enlarged tonsils block airways, leading to sleep apnea, swallowing problems or difficulty eating. Rarely, a tonsillectomy may be performed to treat a malignancy of the tonsils. ...


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Tonsillitis

Tonsillitis is an inflammation of the tonsils, the two pads of lymphoid tissue at the back of the throat. The tonsils are part of the immune system, functioning as the first line of defense against pathogens entering the body through the nose or mouth. Because of their role is protecting the body against infections, they can easily become infected or inflamed themselves. The immune function of the tonsils diminishes after puberty, so tonsillitis, a common ailment in children, is not usually found in adults. Tonsillitis is most often caused by a virus or a bacteria, usually a type of Streptococcus, but may also result from a fungal or parasitic infection. Although usually not considered a serious disorder, severe or untreated tonsillitis may result in complications. ...


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Transnasal Esophagoscopy

Transnasal esophagoscopy is a minimally invasive diagnostic procedure used to evaluate and treat conditions of the esophagus. This procedure can identify diseases of the esophagus, determine the cause of symptoms, remove growths and swallowed objects or stretch narrowed areas. A transnasal esophagoscopy uses an esophagoscope, which is a thin tube with a light and camera on the end that is inserted into the nose and fed through the mouth to the esophagus. The doctor is able to view the area in real time on a video monitor in order to identify any abnormalities in the area that may be causing difficulty breathing, swallowing or eating. ...


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Transtympanic Injections

Transtympanic injections of corticosteroids or gentamicin can be an effective, minimally invasive treatment for dizziness, balance disorders and sudden hearing loss. Corticosteroids work by reducing inflammation. Because of its powerful ototoxic effects, Gentamicin, a powerful antibiotic, may be used to maintain cochlear function. ...


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Turbinate Coblation

Turbinate coblation, also known as ablation, is an effective treatment used to reduce the size of one or more of the small curved bones in the nose called turbinates. When one of these bones becomes enlarged, it may clog the nasal passages, resulting in several troublesome symptoms, including snoring, nasal congestion, facial pressure, sleep apnea and recurrent or chronic sinusitis. ...


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Tympanoplasty

Tympanoplasty is a surgical procedure performed to reconstruct the eardrum when it has been badly torn or perforated. The eardrum, a membrane between the outer ear and middle ear, also known as the tympanic membrane, vibrates to assist in the hearing process. When the eardrum is damaged, hearing loss often occurs. A perforation of the eardrum may also cause severe pain, dizziness or bleeding from the ear. ...


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Tympanic Membrane Perforation

Tympanic membrane perforation, or perforation of the eardrum, occurs when the membrane is torn or punctured. Sometimes when the tympanic membrane is perforated, the small bones of the inner ear, called ossicles, are fractured at the same time. An eardrum perforation may cause hearing loss in the affected ear, but this is usually temporary. ...


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Tympanostomy

A tympanostomy is a surgical procedure during which a surgical opening is made in the eardrum, or tympanic membrane, in order to promote drainage of infected fluid from the middle ear and ear tubes are surgically implanted into the eardrum to promote ongoing drainage. After the tympanostomy, the tubes remain in place for several months. ...


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Uvulitis

Uvulitis is an inflammation of the uvula, the small piece of finger-shaped tissue that hangs down in the back of the throat and is visible when the mouth is open. Uvulitis, which most often occurs as a result of an infection, causing the uvula to swell and redden. If the uvula swells enough to touch the throat or tongue, it may cause gagging or sensations of choking. ...


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Velopharyngeal Insufficiency

Velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI) is the result of an improper closing of the velopharyngeal sphincter, the soft palate muscle, during speech. When this muscle does not close properly, air escapes through the nose instead of the mouth. During speech, VPI produces a nasal quality to the voice, known as hypernasality, and a snorting sound during the pronunciation of certain letters. The condition is usually diagnosed in children, although it may be diagnosed in older patients from developing countries where early diagnosis and treatment have not been available. ...


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Vertigo

Vertigo is the sensation of spinning or dizziness, often accompanied by nausea and vomiting, that occurs as a result of problems within the brain or the inner ear. People with vertigo feel as if their surroundings are moving although no movement is actually occurring. Vertigo is one of the most common health problems in the United States; it affects many adults during their lifetimes. ...


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Vocal Cord Paralysis

Vocal cord paralysis is a common disorder that occurs when nerve impulses to the larynx (commonly known as the voice box) are interrupted. This malfunction, which may occur in one or both vocal cords, not only affects the patient's ability to speak, but may interfere with normal breathing or swallowing. When a vocal cord does not open or close properly, food or liquids can slip into the trachea (windpipe). Vocal cord paralysis occurs more frequently in women, in those with certain neuromuscular disorders and in those who have undergone surgery of the throat or neck. ...


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Voice Modification Procedures

Voice modification procedures involve interventions to rejuvenate weakened, often older, voices by injecting fat, collagen or other substances into the vocal cords or by repairing the cords with synthetic mesh. The muscles that control the voice are often affected by aging in the same way as other muscles in the body. Atrophy deteriorates the muscles over time, resulting in lost volume and bulk. In the vocal cords, the tissues that vibrate with speech also become thinner and stiffer over time, resulting in changes to the quality and strength of the voice, a condition known as presbylaryngitis. As with other conditions connected to aging, vocal cord atrophy may occur prematurely because of genetics, disease or injury. By adding bulk and reducing stiffness of the vocal cords, voice modification procedures can help patients restore lost volume and produce stronger, clearer sounds. ...


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Wheezing

Wheezing is a high-pitched, whistling sound that is made while breathing, and is often a symptom of a chronic respiratory condition. Wheezing is commonly caused by a narrowing of the airways that restricts the movement of air when breathing. This narrowing of the airways may be the result of an inflammation caused by asthma, a viral or bacterial infection, or an allergic reaction. It may also be caused by an obstruction of the airway caused by a tumor or an object that may have been inhaled. ...


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