Smell disorders are common conditions of the olfactory sense. Smell disorders often exist in conjunction with taste disorders and can range from a distorted sense of smell to a complete loss of smell. This may be temporary or permanent, depending on the reason. Common causes of smell disorders may be colds, allergies, sinus infections and viral infections such as the flu. Aging is also a factor in loss of the sense of smell. Like sight and hearing, the sense of smell tends to weaken during the aging process.
Types of Smell Disorders
People with smell disorders experience a change or loss in their ability to smell. There are different types of smell disorders that may include:
- Anosmia, complete loss of smell, which can be temporary or permanent
- Dysosmia, distorted sense of smell, unpleasant odors that do not exist
- Hyperosmia, an increased sensitivity to smell
- Hyposmia, a decreased sense of smell that is usually temporary
- Presbyosmia, a gradual decrease in sense of smell that occurs with aging
Causes of Smell Disorders
Smell disorders may be caused by many different factors, some of which include:
- Head trauma
- Upper respiratory infections
- Nasal polyps
- Diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and multiple sclerosis
- Certain medications
- Hormonal disturbances
- Cocaine abuse
- Dental problems
- Toxic chemical exposure
Psychological conditions can also affect the sense of smell and create non-existent smells.
Treatment of Smell Disorders
Treatment for smell disorders also depends on the cause of the condition. When the condition is caused by a viral infection or an allergic reaction, it will usually clear up on its own, though an over-the-counter decongestant may open the nasal passages and provide some relief. If a smell disorder results from an infection, an antibiotic may be prescribed. When the condition is the result of a nasal polyp or other obstruction, surgery may be required. When the smell disorder results from a particular medication, it may be possible to discontinue taking the medication or a substitution may sometimes be made, although this change should always be done under a doctor's supervision. For some patients, a smell disorder may provide another good reason to give up smoking or the use of cocaine. If the smell disorder is a result from a disease, there may be no effective remedy. Age-related smell disorders often cannot be treated.
When a smell disorder cannot be cured medically, the patient can be taught useful ways to adapt to the condition. It is important for a patient with a smell disorder to have smoke detectors in the home and to take extra care to make sure food has not spoiled or become contaminated.
- National Institutes of Health
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
- Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
- U.S. Department of Health & Human Services
- U.S. National Library of Medicine
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